Gerrit

Gerrit is the code review system used by the OpenStack project. For a full description of how the system fits into the OpenStack workflow, see the development workflow guide.

This section describes how Gerrit is configured for use in the OpenStack project and the tools used to manage that configuration.

At a Glance

Hosts:
Ansible:
Configuration:
Projects:
Bugs:
Resources:

Installation

Gerrit is installed and configured by Ansible, using a Docker container that contains the Java WAR file.

Cinder Volumes

The Gerrit installation at /home/gerrit2 is located on a Cinder volume. See Cinder Volume Management for details on volume management. Note that SSD volumes are used (and they have a minimum size of 100G).

Groups

A number of system-wide groups are configured in Gerrit (rather than via Puppet). When installing a new Gerrit, you should create these by hand (and capture their UUID - you will need them to setup the ACLs later).

The Project Bootstrappers group grants all the permissions needed to set up a new project. Normally, the OpenStack Project Creater account is the only member of this group, but members of the Administrators group may temporarily add themselves in order to correct problems with automatic project creation.

The Third-Party CI group is used to grant +/-1 Verified access to external testing tools on a sandbox project.

The Voting Third-Party CI group is used to grant +/-1 Verified access to external testing tools for all projects.

The Continuous Integration Tools group contains Zuul and any other CI tools that get +2/-2 access on reviews.

Users

The first user to log in becomes an administrator. Be sure to set an account name and add ssh keys - you’ll need those.

Once you’ve created your groups you should create the openstack-project-creator account by hand (the account name is referenced from system-config: playbooks/roles/gerrit/templates/projects.ini.j2) using

$ cat $pubkey | ssh -p 29418 $USER@$HOST gerrit create-account \
             --group "'Project Bootstrappers'" \
             --group Administrators \
             --full-name "'Project Creator'" \
             --email openstack-infra@lists.openstack.org \
             --ssh-key - openstack-project-creator

GitHub Integration

Gerrit replicates to GitHub by pushing to a standard Git remote. The GitHub projects are configured to allow only the Gerrit user to push.

Pull requests can not be disabled for a project in Github, so instead we have a script that runs from cron to close any open pull requests with instructions to use Gerrit.

These are both handled automatically by Jeepyb.

Note that the user running Gerrit will need to accept the GitHub host keys. e.g.

$ sudo su - gerrit2
$ ssh github.com

Troubleshooting

When creating a new project, there can be times where the Jeepyb automation to create the GitHub project can fail, and leave the project improperly configured. This can cause replication to GitHub to fail. The project in GitHub will be created, but will appear empty. When trying replication from Gerrit, it will show a Permission denied error when trying to push content. To solve that, following steps are needed:

  1. Login into github.com, using openstack-project-creator user.

  2. Navigate to the failed repository, and enter on Settings > Collaborators & teams option.

  3. Add Gerrit as Team member to that project.

After the team has been added, project will start replicating successfully to GitHub.

Gerrit IRC Bot

Gerritbot consumes the Gerrit event stream and announces relevant events on IRC. Gerritbot is an OpenDev project and is also available on Pypi.

Launchpad Bug Integration

In addition to the hyperlinks provided by the regex in gerrit.config, we use a Gerrit hook to update Launchpad bugs when changes referencing them are applied. This is managed by the Jeepyb project.

Storyboard Integration

We use the Gerrit its-storyboard plugin to update StoryBoard stories and tasks when changes referencing them are applied.

New Project Creation

Gerrit project creation is now managed through changes to the openstack/project-config repository. Jeepyb handles automatically creating any new projects defined in the configuration files.

Access Controls

High level goals:

  1. Anonymous users can read all projects.

  2. All registered users can perform informational code review (+/-1) on any project.

  3. Zuul can perform verification (blocking or approving: +/-2).

  4. Third Party CI systems can perform informational verification (+/-1).

  5. All registered users can create changes.

  6. Members of $PROJECT-core group can perform full code review (blocking or approving: +/- 2), and submit changes to be merged.

  7. Drivers (PTL and delegates) of client library projects should be able to add tags (which are automatically used to trigger releases).

The global Gerrit permissions set out the high level goals (and manage-projects can then override this on a per project basis as needed). To setup the global permissions, first create the groups covered above under Groups.

You need to grant yourself enough access to replace the ACLs over ssh (we use SSH because it’s fast, and it gets syntax checked).

  1. Visit https://$HOST/#/admin/projects/All-Projects,access and click on Edit.

  2. Look for the reference to refs/meta/config, click on the drop-box for add permission and choose PUSH.

  3. Type in Administrators as the group name

  4. Click on Add

  5. Click on Save Changes

Then… we need to fetch the All-Projects ACLs, update them, then push the updates back into Gerrit

$ export USER=$your_gerrit_user
$ export HOST=$your_gerrit_host
$ cd $anywhereyoulike
$ mkdir All-Projects-ACLs
$ cd All-Projects-ACLs
$ git init
$ git remote add gerrit ssh://$USER@$HOST:29418/All-Projects.git
$ git fetch gerrit +refs/meta/*:refs/remotes/gerrit-meta/*
$ git checkout -b config remotes/gerrit-meta/config

There will be two interesting files, groups and project.config. groups contains UUIDs and names of groups that will be referenced in project.config. UUIDs can be found on the group page in Gerrit. Next, edit project.config to look like:

[access "refs/*"]
create = group Project Bootstrappers
forgeAuthor = group Registered Users
forgeCommitter = group Project Bootstrappers
push = +force group Project Bootstrappers
pushMerge = group Project Bootstrappers
pushSignedTag = group Project Bootstrappers
pushTag = group Continuous Integration Tools
pushTag = group Project Bootstrappers
read = group Anonymous Users
editTopicName = group Registered Users

[access "refs/drafts/*"]
push = block group Registered Users

[access "refs/for/refs/*"]
push = group Registered Users

[access "refs/for/refs/zuul/*"]
pushMerge = group Continuous Integration Tools

[access "refs/heads/*"]
label-Code-Review = -2..+2 group Project Bootstrappers
label-Code-Review = -1..+1 group Registered Users
label-Verified = -2..+2 group Continuous Integration Tools
label-Verified = -2..+2 group Project Bootstrappers
label-Verified = -1..+1 group Continuous Integration Tools Development
label-Verified = -1..+1 group Voting Third-Party CI
label-Workflow = -1..+0 group Change Owner
label-Workflow = -1..+1 group Project Bootstrappers
rebase = group Registered Users
submit = group Continuous Integration Tools
submit = group Project Bootstrappers

[access "refs/meta/config"]
read = group Project Owners

[access "refs/meta/openstack/*"]
create = group Continuous Integration Tools
push = group Continuous Integration Tools
read = group Continuous Integration Tools

[access "refs/zuul/*"]
create = group Continuous Integration Tools
push = +force group Continuous Integration Tools
pushMerge = group Continuous Integration Tools

[capability]
accessDatabase = group Administrators
administrateServer = group Administrators
createProject = group Project Bootstrappers
emailReviewers = deny group Third-Party CI
priority = batch group Service Users
runAs = group Project Bootstrappers
streamEvents = group Registered Users

[contributor-agreement "ICLA"]
accepted = group CLA Accepted - ICLA
agreementUrl = static/cla.html
autoVerify = group CLA Accepted - ICLA
description = OpenStack Individual Contributor License Agreement

[contributor-agreement "System CLA"]
accepted = group System CLA
agreementUrl = static/system-cla.html
description = DON'T SIGN THIS: System CLA (externally managed)

[contributor-agreement "USG CLA"]
accepted = group USG CLA
agreementUrl = static/usg-cla.html
description = DON'T SIGN THIS: U.S. Government CLA (externally managed)

[label "Code-Review"]
abbreviation = R
copyAllScoresOnTrivialRebase = true
copyMinScore = true
function = MaxWithBlock
value = -2 Do not merge
value = -1 This patch needs further work before it can be merged
value = 0 No score
value = +1 Looks good to me, but someone else must approve
value = +2 Looks good to me (core reviewer)

[label "Verified"]
function = MaxWithBlock
value = -2 Fails
value = -1 Doesn't seem to work
value = 0 No score
value = +1 Works for me
value = +2 Verified

[label "Workflow"]
function = MaxWithBlock
value = -1 Work in progress
value = 0 Ready for reviews
value = +1 Approved

[plugin "its-storyboard"]
enabled = true

[project]
description = Rights inherited by all other projects

Now edit the groups file. The format is:

#UUID  Group Name
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890  group-foo

Each of the groups listed above under ‘Groups’ should have an entry as well as the built in groups such as ‘Service Users’ which may or may not be present in the initial groups file. You can find the UUID values by navigating to Admin -> Groups -> Group Name -> General in the Web UI.

Finally, commit the changes and push the config back up to Gerrit

$ git commit -am "Initial All-Projects config"
$ git push gerrit HEAD:refs/meta/config

Manual Administrative Tasks

The following sections describe tasks that individuals with root access may need to perform on rare occasions.

Renaming a Project

Renaming a project is not automated and is disruptive to developers, so it should be avoided. Allow for an hour of downtime for the project in question, and about 10 minutes of downtime for all of Gerrit. All Gerrit changes, merged and open, will carry over, so in-progress changes do not need to be merged before the move.

To rename a project:

  1. Prepare a change to the project-config repo to update things like projects.yaml, Gerrit ACLs, zuul and gerritbot for the new name.

  2. Prepare a yaml file called repos.yaml that has a single dictionary called repos with a list of dictionaries each having an old and new entry. Optionally also add a gerrit_groups dict of the same form if groups are being renamed:

    repos:
    - old: stackforge/awesome-repo
      new: openstack/awesome-repo
    - old: openstack/foo
      new: openstack/bar
    gerrit_groups:
    - old: old-core-group
      new: new-core-group
    

    Add this file to the renames/ directory in the opendev/project-config repository.

  3. An hour in advance of the maintenance (if possible), put review02.opendev.org, gitea01-8.opendev.org, and storyboard01.opendev.org into the emergency file on bridge.

  4. Check that all servers involved in the rename playbook (review, zuul-scheduler, storyboard, storyboard-dev, and the giteas) are responding to ssh to ensure the next step can run successfully.

  5. Run the ansible rename repos playbook, passing in the path to your yaml file

    $ sudo ansible-playbook -f 10 /home/zuul/src/opendev.org/opendev/system-config/playbooks/rename_repos.yaml -e repolist=ABSOLUTE_PATH_TO_VARS_FILE
    
  6. Force-merge the prepared configuration changes.

  7. Wait for the changes merged above to replicate to the giteas.

    Warning

    Not waiting at this step can cause manage-projects to run with our old pre rename state causing the project to be created under its old name.

  8. Remove review02.opendev.org, gitea01-8.opendev.org, and storyboard01.opendev.org from the emergency file.

  9. Ensure that the next manage-projects run does not update the giteas or review servers. It should be a noop.

Developers will either need to re-clone a new copy of the repository, or manually update their remotes with something like

$ git remote set-url origin https://opendev.org/$ORG/$PROJECT

Third-Party Testing Access

The command to add an account for an automated system which gets -1/+1 code verify voting rights (as outlined in Third Party Testing) looks like:

$ ssh -p 29418 review.opendev.org "gerrit create-account --group 'Third-Party CI' --full-name 'Some CI Bot' --email ci-bot@third-party.org --ssh-key 'ssh-rsa AAAAB3Nz...zaUCse1P ci-bot@third-party.org' some-ci-bot"

Details on the create-account command can be found in the Gerrit API documentation.

Deleting Accounts in Gerrit

We can not delete accounts. They can be made inactive.

Duplicate Accounts in Gerrit

If a user has two accounts, we can not combine them. We can only deactivate one of them.

For example, user foo has an account foo@company.com and moves to a new job, creating a new account foo@new.com. They log-in with foo@new.com, but then realise what they really wanted to do was add this new address to their existing account (i.e. foo@company.com).

The first step to resolve this is to confirm the ID of the unwanted account, . As an admin user with a HTTP password set, search for the new account:

$ curl -u you.admin -i -H "Accept: application/json" 'https://review.opendev.org/a/accounts/foo@new.com'

That will return an _acount_id. For this example, assume it is 12345. The user should check in their settings they are not using this account.

Clone All-Users to modify the account, and checkout the account config, which is sharded by the last two digits of the _account_id.

$ git clone ssh://you.admin@review.opendev.org:29418/All-Users
$ git fetch origin refs/users/45/12345
$ git checkout FETCH_HEAD

Edit the [account] section of account.conf to remove preferredEmail and have a line active = false. Put your admin account into Project Bootstrappers (see System Administration) and commit this

$ git commit -m "Make duplicate account inactive" --author <your@email.com>
$ git push origin HEAD:refs/users/45/12345

There will still be an OpenID external ID associated with this now inactive account. This will prevent adding foo@new.com to another account until this is removed.

Check this via the API with

$ curl  -u you.admin -i -H "Accept: application/json" https://review.opendev.org/a/accounts/12345/external.ids

This will give a json result with an identity URL like "identity":"https://login.ubuntu.com/+id/RaND0m. Use this to delete the record with another call

$ curl -XPOST  -u you.admin -i -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '["https://login.ubuntu.com/+id/RaND0m"]' https://review.opendev.org/a/accounts/12345/external.ids:delete

If the user has added email addresses, there may also be mailto: identity entries for emails the user now wishes to use on their other account. You should remove these with a :delete call as above. Note that username external-ids cannot be deleted (Gerrit will error), so new accounts can not reuse the username of old accounts.

The user should now be able to add foo@new.com to their old account.

Deactivating a Gerrit account

To deactivate a Gerrit account (use case can be a failing Third Party CI), you must follow that steps:

  1. Identify the account ID of the Third Party CI you need to deactivate. Third-Party CI members can be found on: https://review.opendev.org/#/admin/groups/270,members

    That will give you the name and email of all members. Then you can get the matching numerical account ID with the help of REST API

    $ curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" --digest --user <<gerrit_user>>:<<http_pass>> -X GET https://review.opendev.org/a/accounts/{email}
    

    This will return a JSON dictionary, that will contain _account_id field.

  2. Mark the account as inactive using gerrit ssh api, with

    $ ssh -p 29418 review.opendev.org gerrit set-account --inactive {account-id}
    

    Alternatively you can use REST API, sending a DELETE for

    $ curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" --digest --user <<gerrit_user>>:<<http_pass>> -X DELETE https://review.opendev.org/a/accounts/{account-id}/active
    
  3. Check if there are active gerrit ssh connections

    $ ssh -p 29418 review.opendev.org gerrit show-connections -n | grep {account-id}
    

    And kill all of them with subsequent

    $ ssh -p 29418 review.opendev.org gerrit close-connection {connection-id}
    
  4. You can check if the account is properly marked as inactive using REST API, sending a GET for

    $ curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" --digest --user <<gerrit_user>>:<<http_pass>> -X GET https://review.opendev.org/a/accounts/{account-id}/active
    

    A 200 return code means the account is active, and 204 means account inactive.

Generating a Thread Dump for Debugging

We removed the Java Melody plugin the wake of the Log4Shell vulnerability. This removed an easy way to acquire a thread dump but dumping threads is still possible with java command line tools. You may find yourself wanting to do this if Gerrit is suffering from poor performance or you are trying to debug odd Gerrit behavior.

To run jstack and produce a thread dump do

root@review02 # docker exec -it gerrit-compose_gerrit_1 bash
gerrit@review02 $ ps -ef | grep java # find the Gerrit java process PID
gerrit@review02 $ jstack ${PID} > /tmp/dump.yearmonthday